ScienceDaily: Quantum Physics News

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Description: News on quantum physics. Read current research on everything from quantum mechanics to quantum dots. Was Albert Einstein right?

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ScienceDaily: Quantum Physics News

Quantum model reveals surface structure of water
by on Mon, 20 Apr 2015 12:03:20 EDT:
Physicists have used a new quantum model to reveal the molecular structure of water's liquid surface.
Detector at the South Pole explores the mysterious neutrinos
by on Thu, 16 Apr 2015 11:52:17 EDT:
Neutrinos are a type of particle that pass through just about everything in their path from even the most distant regions of the universe. The giant IceCube experiment at the South Pole can detect when there is a collision between neutrinos and atoms in the ice using detectors. New research results from the Niels Bohr Institute have measured the neutrinos and calculated some of the physical properties of the otherwise exotic and poorly understood particles.
A 'pin ball machine' for atoms and photons
by on Thu, 16 Apr 2015 09:39:24 EDT:
A team of physicists proposes the combination of nano-photonics with ultracold atoms for simulating quantum many-body systems and creating new states of matter.
Quantum cryptography at the speed of light: Researchers design first all-photonic repeaters
by on Wed, 15 Apr 2015 09:28:39 EDT:
Engineers bring perfectly secure information exchanges one step to reality. They have now designed the first all-photonic quantum repeaters -- protocols that ensure data can be carried reliably and securely across longer distances when using quantum cryptography.
Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider smashes record for polarized proton luminosity
by on Tue, 14 Apr 2015 21:25:27 EDT:
Thanks to accelerator advances, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, a powerful nuclear physics research facility has just shattered its own record for producing polarized proton collisions at 200-giga-electron-volt collision energy. The improvement will generate high volumes of data rapidly, giving physicists time to achieve several high-priority science goals in a single run at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider.
Hot quark soup that existed at the dawn of the universe
by on Tue, 14 Apr 2015 12:57:10 EDT:
Thousands of times a second the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory re-creates the hot quark soup that existed at the dawn of the universe. Particles composed of heavy quarks can help reveal details about the quark-gluon plasma, and by extension, the early universe and the origins of matter.
Quantum Hall effect: Quantization of 'surface Dirac states' could lead to exotic applications
by on Tue, 14 Apr 2015 08:53:52 EDT:
Researchers have uncovered the first evidence of an unusual quantum phenomenon -- the integer quantum Hall effect -- in a new type of film, called a 3-D topological insulator. This discovery could help move science forward toward the goal of dissipationless electronics -- electronic devices that can operate without producing the vast amounts of heat generated by current silicon-based semiconductors.
Quantum computing: Bounds on the quantum information 'speed limit' tightened
by on Mon, 13 Apr 2015 09:52:02 EDT:
Physicists have narrowed the theoretical limits for where the 'speed limit' lies for quantum computers. The findings, which offer a better description of how quickly information can travel within a system built of quantum particles, implies that quantum processors will work more slowly than some research has suggested.
Electrical control of quantum bits in silicon paves the way to large quantum computers
by on Fri, 10 Apr 2015 16:53:18 EDT:
Scientists have encoded quantum information in silicon using simple electrical pulses for the first time, bringing the construction of affordable large-scale quantum computers one step closer to reality.
Quantum physics: Hot and cold at the same time
by on Thu, 09 Apr 2015 14:30:37 EDT:
Temperature is a statistical concept. Very small systems, consisting of a small number of particles, are not usually described statistically. Scientists have now measured how quantum systems reach a state with well defined statistical properties -- and surprisingly, they found out that quantum systems can have several temperatures at once. The connection between small quantum systems and large systems obeying the laws of classical physics is one of the big open questions in physics.
Holometer extends limit on knowable universe
by on Thu, 09 Apr 2015 13:32:08 EDT:
The Holometer experiment is sensitive to gravitational waves at frequencies in the range of a million cycles per second. Thus it addresses a spectrum not covered by experiments such as the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory, which searches for lower-frequency waves to detect massive cosmic events such as colliding black holes and merging neutron stars.
New understanding of electromagnetism could enable 'antennas on a chip'
by on Thu, 09 Apr 2015 08:32:13 EDT:
New understanding of the nature of electromagnetism could lead to antennas small enough to fit on computer chips -- the 'last frontier' of semiconductor design -- and could help identify the points where theories of classical electromagnetism and quantum mechanics overlap.
Quantum interference links the fate of two atoms
by on Thu, 09 Apr 2015 08:14:36 EDT:
For the first time, physicists have achieved interference between two separate atoms: when sent towards the opposite sides of a semi-transparent mirror, the two atoms always emerge together. This type of experiment, which was carried out with photons around thirty years ago, had so far been impossible to perform with matter, due to the extreme difficulty of creating and manipulating pairs of indistinguishable atoms.
Unravelling relativistic effects in the heaviest actinide element: First ionization energy of lawrencium determined
by on Thu, 09 Apr 2015 08:14:34 EDT:
Scientists have achieved the ionization potential measurement of lawrencium (element 103) with a novel-type technique at the JAEA tandem accelerator. Based on the empirically developed "actinide concept", and in agreement with theoretical calculations, in today’s Periodic Table the series of actinide elements terminates with element 103, lawrencium (Lr). Now researchers have measured the first ionization potential of Lr, which reflects the binding energy of the most weakly-bound valence electron in lawrencium’s atomic shell.
Why is there more matter than antimatter? For ultra-cold neutrino experiment, a successful demonstration
by on Thu, 09 Apr 2015 08:13:19 EDT:
Nuclear physicists announced the first scientific results from the Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) experiment. CUORE is designed to confirm the existence of the Majorana neutrino, which scientists believe could hold the key to why there is an abundance of matter over antimatter.
A glass fiber that brings light to a standstill
by on Wed, 08 Apr 2015 10:26:59 EDT:
Light has been slowed down by coupling atoms to glass fibers. This technology is an important prerequisite for a future worldwide quantum internet.
Restart of the Large Hadron Collider
by on Mon, 06 Apr 2015 08:32:58 EDT:
Yesterday, the world's most powerful particle accelerator began its second act. After two years of upgrades and repairs, proton beams once again circulated around the Large Hadron Collider, located at the CERN laboratory near Geneva, Switzerland.
Magnet designed for Large Hadron Collider upgrade achieves high-field milestone
by on Mon, 06 Apr 2015 07:09:44 EDT:
Last month, a new superconducting magnet reached its design field of 11.5 Tesla at a temperature nearly as cold as outer space. It is the first successful twin-aperture accelerator magnet made of niobium-3-tin in the world.
Physicists create new molecule with record-setting dipole moment
by on Fri, 03 Apr 2015 23:37:09 EDT:
A proposed pathway to construct quantum computers may be the outcome of research by a physics team that has created a new molecule based on the interaction between a highly-excited type of atom known as a Rydberg atom and a ground-state atom. A unique property of the molecule is the large permanent dipole moment, which reacts with an electric field much like a bar magnet reacts with a magnetic field.
Quantum material, frustrated magnets: New experiment reveals clues to their discontent
by on Fri, 03 Apr 2015 15:07:08 EDT:
An experiment has revealed an unlikely behavior in a class of materials called frustrated magnets, addressing a long-debated question about the nature of these discontented quantum materials. The work represents a surprising discovery that down the road may suggest new research directions for advanced electronics. The study also someday may help clarify the mechanism of high-temperature superconductivity, the frictionless transmission of electricity.
Black holes don’t erase information, scientists say
by on Thu, 02 Apr 2015 13:27:08 EDT:
Shred a document, and you can piece it back together. But send information into a black hole, and it's lost forever. A new study finds that -- contrary to what some physicists have argued for the years -- information is not lost once it has entered a black hole. The research presents explicit calculations showing how information is, in fact, preserved.
Femto-snapshots of reaction kinetics
by on Wed, 01 Apr 2015 13:30:31 EDT:
Following six years' work, an international team comprising 11 research institutions has been successful in observing precisely how light affects the outer electrons of a metallic compound and activates this compound as a catalyst. They developed their own experiment for this investigation, which provided time resolutions down to 100 femtoseconds, and the synchrotron radiation source BESSY II.
Quantum teleportation on a chip: Significant step towards ultra-high speed quantum computers
by on Wed, 01 Apr 2015 11:45:19 EDT:
The core circuits of quantum teleportation, which generate and detect quantum entanglement, have been successfully integrated into a photonic chip by an international team of scientists. These results pave the way to developing ultra-high-speed quantum computers and strengthening the security of communication.
Super sensitive measurement of magnetic fields
by on Mon, 30 Mar 2015 12:24:43 EDT:
There are electrical signals in the nervous system, the brain and throughout the human body and there are tiny magnetic fields associated with these signals that could be important for medical science. Researchers have just developed a method that could be used to obtain extremely precise measurements of ultra-small magnetic fields.
Next important step toward quantum computer
by on Mon, 30 Mar 2015 08:27:42 EDT:
Physicists have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer.
First glimpse inside a macroscopic quantum state
by on Fri, 27 Mar 2015 09:10:12 EDT:
Scientists report on the detection of particle entanglement in a beam of squeezed light. Researchers were able to observe effects of entanglement monogamy, where particles can be strongly entangled only if they have few entanglement partners.
Using magnetic fields to understand high-temperature superconductivity
by on Thu, 26 Mar 2015 15:23:21 EDT:
Taking our understanding of quantum matter to new levels, scientists are exposing high-temperature superconductors to very high magnetic fields, changing the temperature at which the materials become perfectly conducting and revealing unique properties of these substances.
Theory of the strong interaction verified: Supercomputer calculates mass difference between neutron and proton
by on Thu, 26 Mar 2015 15:16:07 EDT:
The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. The findings are considered a milestone by many physicists and confirm the theory of the strong interaction.
Magnetic quantum crystals
by on Thu, 26 Mar 2015 15:16:03 EDT:
In experiments with ultracold rubidium atoms scientists create magnetic quantum crystals made of gigantic Rydberg atoms.
Thousands of atoms entangled with a single photon
by on Wed, 25 Mar 2015 15:19:03 EDT:
Physicists have developed a new technique that can successfully entangle 3,000 atoms using only a single photon. The results represent the largest number of particles that have ever been mutually entangled experimentally.
Tiny bio-robot is a germ suited-up with graphene quantum dots
by on Tue, 24 Mar 2015 14:07:23 EDT:
Researchers have created an electromechanical device -- a humidity sensor -- on a bacterial spore. Like other first-generation bio-robots, the new nanobot is a far cry from Robocop. It's a robotic germ.
'Tipping point' between quantum and classical worlds identified
by on Tue, 24 Mar 2015 13:22:34 EDT:
If we are ever to fully harness the power of light for use in optical devices, it is necessary to understand photons -- the fundamental unit of light. Achieving such understanding, however, is easier said than done. That's because the physical behavior of photons -- similar to electrons and other sub-atomic particles -- is characterized not by classical physics, but by quantum mechanics. Now, scientists have observed the point at which classical and quantum behavior converge.
Building shape inspires new material discovery
by on Tue, 24 Mar 2015 10:14:49 EDT:
Physicists inspired by the radical shape of a Canberra building have created a new type of material which enables scientists to put a perfect bend in light. The creation of a so-called topological insulator could transform the telecommunications industry's drive to build an improved computer chip using light.
Quantum experiment verifies Einstein's 'spooky action at a distance'
by on Tue, 24 Mar 2015 08:48:08 EDT:
Scientists have for the first time demonstrated Albert Einstein's original conception of 'spooky action at a distance' using a single particle.
Quantum correlation can imply causation
by on Mon, 23 Mar 2015 15:06:45 EDT:
Contrary to the statistician's slogan, in the quantum world, certain kinds of correlations do imply causation. New research shows that in quantum mechanics, certain kinds of observations will let you distinguish whether there is a common cause or a cause-effect relation between two variables. The same is not true in classical physics.
New approach uses 'twisted light' to increase efficiency of quantum cryptography systems
by on Fri, 20 Mar 2015 13:31:10 EDT:
Researchers have developed a way to transfer 2.05 bits per photon by using 'twisted light.' This remarkable achievement is possible because the researchers used the orbital angular momentum of the photons to encode information, rather than the more commonly used polarization of light. The new approach doubles the 1 bit per photon that is possible with current systems that rely on light polarization and could help increase the efficiency of quantum cryptography systems.
Superfast computers a step closer as a silicon chip's quantum capabilities are improved
by on Fri, 20 Mar 2015 09:13:07 EDT:
Research has demonstrated laser control of quantum states in an ordinary silicon wafer and observation of these states via a conventional electrical measurement. 
High temp superconductivity: You can't play checkers with charge ordering
by on Thu, 19 Mar 2015 16:55:52 EDT:
Physicists have observed the shape of a strange phenomenon that interferes with high-temperature superconductivity called charge ordering, discovering that it is stripy, not checkered, and settling a long-standing debate in the field.
Sharper nanoscopy: What happens when a quantum dot looks in a mirror?
by on Thu, 19 Mar 2015 14:34:22 EDT:
The advent of super-resolved microscopy with visible light won this year's chemistry Nobel. Scientists have now discovered how to make nanoscale images even sharper.
Scientists decipher the spectrum of CH5+ for the first time
by on Thu, 19 Mar 2015 14:33:27 EDT:
For the first time ever, scientist have succeeded in understanding the spectrum of the highly fluxional molecule CH5+. This insight was made possible by the extreme cooling of this enigmatic molecule and a highly accurate measurement of its vibrational transitions.
Quantum computing: One step closer with defect-free logic gate
by on Thu, 19 Mar 2015 09:22:20 EDT:
What does hair styling have in common with quantum computing? The braiding pattern has inspired scientists as a potential new approach to quantum calculation. But due to their tight assembly, such braids are much more difficult to destabilize and less error-prone. Yet, local defects can still arise along nanowires. A new study identifies potential sources of computer errors arising from these defects.
Quantum dots 'breathe' in response to stress
by on Thu, 19 Mar 2015 09:19:42 EDT:
Researchers have watched nanoscale semiconductor crystals expand and shrink in response to powerful pulses of laser light. This ultrafast "breathing" provides new insight about how such tiny structures change shape as they start to melt -- information that can help guide researchers in tailoring their use for a range of applications.
Fine-tuning quantum dots from coal
by on Wed, 18 Mar 2015 14:06:56 EDT:
The size of graphene quantum dots made from coal can be finely tuned in a single step for electronic and fluorescent properties, according to scientists.
Superradiant matter: A new paradigm to explore dynamic phase transitions
by on Wed, 18 Mar 2015 10:13:55 EDT:
In a new approach to understand dynamic phase transitions an experimental and theoretical effort was undertaken using a novel type of quantum matter in a so-called superradiant state.
Light as puppeteer: Controlling single, micron-sized particles with light
by on Wed, 18 Mar 2015 07:42:36 EDT:
Researchers have demonstrated a more robust method for controlling single, micron-sized particles with light.
Advancing accelerator science using Mira
by on Tue, 17 Mar 2015 14:24:48 EDT:
Physicists are performing complex accelerator simulations aimed at reducing the risks and costs involved in developing the world's highest intensity particle beams.
Nanospheres cooled with light to explore the limits of quantum physics
by on Tue, 17 Mar 2015 10:41:18 EDT:
Scientists have developed a new technology which could one day create quantum phenomena in objects far larger than any achieved so far. The team successfully suspended glass particles 400 nanometers across in a vacuum using an electric field, then used lasers to cool them to within a few degrees of absolute zero. These are the key prerequisites for making an object behave according to quantum principles.
New remote control for molecular motors
by on Mon, 16 Mar 2015 12:25:14 EDT:
Magnetic molecules can be considered as nanoscale magnets. Remotely controlling the direction in which they rotate may intuitively be difficult to achieve. However, physicists have just demonstrated that it is theoretically possible to do so. They have shown that a change of direction in the circular polarization of an external magnetic field leads to a change in the direction of the mechanical rotation of the molecule.
Frozen highly charged ions for highest precision spectroscopy
by on Thu, 12 Mar 2015 14:29:11 EDT:
Scientists have demonstrated for the first time Coulomb crystallization of highly charged ions (HCIs). The new method opens the field of laser spectroscopy of HCIs providing the basis for novel atomic clocks and high-precision tests of the variability of natural constants.
Shaken, not stirred, is best for cancer imaging
by on Thu, 12 Mar 2015 14:25:20 EDT:
Fluorescent probes currently used for bioimaging (for example, cadmium selenide quantum dots) fluoresce brightly enough to show up on detectors but may be toxic and thus unsuitable for use in the body. Now scientists have found that tiny conjugated polyelectrolyte-nanoparticle probes produced by ultrasonication prove superior to commercial products.
How does order emerge?
by on Thu, 12 Mar 2015 10:04:47 EDT:
Scientists have analyzed how fast order can appear in a quantum-mechanical system. During the freezing of water, the initially unordered molecules start to form an ordered crystal, namely ice. During this phase transition, they rearrange from an unordered into a more ordered state. This setting naturally poses one important question: How long does this phase transition take, i.e. how long does it take for each molecule to find its place in the crystal?
Particle jets reveal the secrets of the most exotic state of matter
by on Wed, 11 Mar 2015 12:46:49 EDT:
Shortly following the Big Bang, the Universe was filled with a chaotic primordial soup of quarks and gluons, particles which are now trapped inside of protons and neutrons. Study of this quark-gluon plasma requires the use of the most advanced theoretical and experimental tools. Physicists have taken one crucial step towards a better understanding of the plasma and its properties.
Theoretical physicists design 'holy grail' of materials science
by on Wed, 11 Mar 2015 08:17:06 EDT:
Graphene is a form of carbon in which the atoms are connected in a honeycomb structure. The possible ‘holy grail’ has this same structure, but is made of nanocrystals of mercury and tellurium. In their paper, theoretical physicists show that this material combines the properties of graphene with the qualities graphene misses. At room temperature, it is a semiconductor instead of a conductor, so that it can be used as a field-effect transistor. And it fulfils the conditions required to realise quantum spintronics, because it may host the quantum spin Hall effect at room temperature.
Researchers snap-shot fastest observations of superconductivity yet
by on Tue, 10 Mar 2015 16:02:13 EDT:
An international team of researchers has used infinitely short light pulses to observe ultrafast changes in the electron-level properties of superconductors, setting a new standard for temporal resolution in the field.
Mid-IR frequency combs enable high resolution spectroscopy for sensitive and accurate gas sensing
by on Tue, 10 Mar 2015 12:32:04 EDT:
Scientists have developed a frequency comb light source in the mid-IR wavelength band. These frequency comb light sources with an extended spectrum can be used for real-time, extremely high resolution spectroscopy, e.g. to measure the presence and concentration of gas molecules in analytes.
Solving the riddle of neutron stars
by on Tue, 10 Mar 2015 07:41:05 EDT:
It has not yet been possible to measure the gravitational waves predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity. They are so weak that they get lost in the noise of the measurements. But thanks to the latest simulations of the merging of binary neutron star systems, the structure of the sought-after signals is now known. As theoretical astrophysicists report, gravitational waves have a characteristic spectrum that is similar to the spectral lines of atoms.
Quantum sensor's advantages survive entanglement breakdown
by on Mon, 09 Mar 2015 13:50:50 EDT:
The extraordinary promise of quantum information processing -- solving problems that classical computers can't, perfectly secure communication -- depends on a phenomenon called "entanglement," in which the physical states of different quantum particles become interrelated. But entanglement is very fragile, and the difficulty of preserving it is a major obstacle to developing practical quantum information systems.
Graphene meets heat waves
by on Fri, 06 Mar 2015 11:20:11 EST:
Researchers have shed new light on the fundamental mechanisms of heat dissipation in graphene and other two-dimensional materials. They have shown that heat can propagate as a wave over very long distances. This is key information for engineering the electronics of tomorrow.
Breakthrough in nonlinear optics research
by on Thu, 05 Mar 2015 11:06:07 EST:
A method to selectively enhance or inhibit optical nonlinearities in a chip-scale device has been developed by scientists. To achieve their result the scientists investigated a specific optical nonlinearity that deals with the interaction between light and sound on chip scale devices.
Einstein put to the test: Satellite mission on dark energy and theory of gravitation
by on Thu, 05 Mar 2015 11:03:46 EST:
Physicists have gained new insights into dark energy and the theory of gravitation by analyzing data from the "Planck" satellite mission of the European Space Agency (ESA). Their results demonstrate that the standard model of cosmology remains an excellent description of the universe. Yet when the Planck data is combined with other astronomical observations, several deviations emerge. Further studies must determine whether these anomalies are due to measurement uncertainties or undiscovered physical correlations, which would also challenge Einstein's theory of gravitation. Thus, the analysis of the Planck data gives major impetus for research during future space missions.