ScienceDaily: Quantum Physics News

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Description: News on quantum physics. Read current research on everything from quantum mechanics to quantum dots. Was Albert Einstein right?

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ScienceDaily: Quantum Physics News

Quantum physics just got less complicated: Wave-particle duality and quantum uncertainty are same thing
by on Fri, 19 Dec 2014 08:51:53 EST:
Here's a nice surprise: quantum physics is less complicated than we thought. An international team of researchers has demonstrated that two peculiar features of the quantum world previously considered distinct are different manifestations of the same thing.
Physicists characterize electronic, magnetic structure in transition metal oxides
by on Thu, 18 Dec 2014 15:45:11 EST:
Scientists have characterized the electronic and magnetic structure in artificially synthesized materials called transition metal oxides.
Revealing the quantum geometry of the graphene lattice
by on Thu, 18 Dec 2014 14:09:06 EST:
Among the most revolutionary concepts of modern physics is that the laws of nature are inherently non-local. One striking manifestation of this non-locality was famously predicted by Aharonov and Bohm: a magnetic field confined to the interior of a solenoid can alter the behavior of electrons outside it, shifting the phase of their wave-like interference although they never directly encounter the magnetic field. Originally regarded as a mere curiosity, such "geometric phase shifts" are now known to have dramatic consequences for electron transport in solid-state materials, e.g., allowing unimpeded current flow along the edges of a material that is insulating in the bulk.
The simplest element: Turning hydrogen into 'graphene'
by on Tue, 16 Dec 2014 12:38:29 EST:
New work delves into the chemistry underlying some surprising recent observations about hydrogen, and reveals remarkable parallels between hydrogen and graphene under extreme pressures.
Scientists trace nanoparticles from plants to caterpillars: Are nanoparticles getting in our food?
by on Tue, 16 Dec 2014 12:38:23 EST:
In one of the most comprehensive studies of its kind, scientists tracked uptake and accumulation of quantum dot nanoparticles from water to plant roots, plant leaves and leaf-eating caterpillars.
Exact solution to model Big Bang and quark gluon plasma
by on Tue, 16 Dec 2014 12:38:17 EST:
Scientists have published an exact solution that applies to a wide array of physics contexts and will help researchers to better model galactic structure, supernova explosions and high-energy particle collisions, such as those studied at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Switzerland.
Researchers generate tunable photon-pair spectrum using room-temperature quantum optics silicon chip
by on Tue, 16 Dec 2014 10:07:17 EST:
A team of researchers have demonstrated a way to emit and control quantum light generated using a chip made from silicon -- one of the most widely used materials for modern electronics.
Is the Higgs Boson a piece of the matter-antimatter puzzle?
by on Tue, 16 Dec 2014 10:04:39 EST:
Several experiments, including the BaBar experiment have helped explain some – but not all – of the imbalance between matter and antimatter in the universe. Now theorists have laid out a possible method for determining if the Higgs Boson is involved. Why there's more matter than antimatter is one of the biggest questions confounding particle physicists and cosmologists, and it cuts to the heart of our own existence.
Mathematicians prove the Umbral Moonshine Conjecture
by on Mon, 15 Dec 2014 11:48:16 EST:
Monstrous moonshine, a quirky pattern of the monster group in theoretical math, has a shadow -- umbral moonshine. Mathematicians have now proved this insight, known as the Umbral Moonshine Conjecture, offering a formula with potential applications for everything from number theory to geometry to quantum physics.
Control of shape of light particles opens the way to 'quantum internet'
by on Mon, 15 Dec 2014 08:44:11 EST:
In the same way as we now connect computers in networks through optical signals, it could also be possible to connect future quantum computers in a ‘quantum internet’. The optical signals would then consist of individual light particles or photons. One prerequisite for a working quantum internet is control of the shape of these photons. Researchers have now succeeded for the first time in getting this control within the required short time.
Researchers detect possible signal from dark matter
by on Thu, 11 Dec 2014 11:55:20 EST:
Scientists have picked up an atypical photon emission in X-rays coming from space, and say it could be evidence for the existence of a particle of dark matter. If confirmed, it could open up new perspectives in cosmology.
New way to plug 'leaky' light cavities demonstrated
by on Wed, 10 Dec 2014 14:08:42 EST:
Engineers have demonstrated a new and more efficient way to trap light, using a phenomenon called bound states in the continuum that was first proposed in the early days of quantum wave mechanics.
Physicists explain puzzling particle collisions
by on Wed, 10 Dec 2014 13:13:54 EST:
An anomaly spotted at the Large Hadron Collider has prompted scientists to reconsider a mathematical description of the underlying physics. By considering two forces that are distinct in everyday life but unified under extreme conditions, they have simplified one description of the interactions of elementary particles. Their new version makes specific predictions about events that future experiments should observe and could help to reveal 'new physics,' particles or processes that have yet to be discovered.
Where are the helium atoms in the molecule? As in a cloud
by on Wed, 10 Dec 2014 09:59:57 EST:
Physicists have now resolved a disputed matter of theoretical physics. Science has long since known that, contrary to the old school of thought, helium forms molecules of two, three or even more atoms. Exactly what helium consisting of three atoms looks like, however, has been disputed by theoretical physicists for about 20 years. Besides the intuitive assumption that the three identical components form an equilateral triangle, there was also the hypothesis that the three atoms are arranged linearly, in other words in a row. Scientists, using the COLTRIMS reaction microscope, were able to demonstrate that the truth lies somewhere in between.
Nanoscale resistors for quantum devices
by on Tue, 09 Dec 2014 08:19:07 EST:
The electrical characteristics of new thin-film chromium oxide resistors can be tuned by controlling the oxygen content. Researchers have made new compact, high-value resistors for nanoscale quantum circuits. The resistors could speed the development of quantum devices for computing and fundamental physics research.
Composite materials can be designed in a supercomputer 'virtual lab'
by on Tue, 09 Dec 2014 08:18:03 EST:
Scientists have shown how advanced computer simulations can be used to design new composite materials. Nanocomposites, which are widely used in industry, are revolutionary materials in which microscopic particles are dispersed through plastics. But their development until now has been largely by trial and error.
World record for compact particle accelerator: Researchers ramp up energy of laser-plasma 'tabletop' accelerator
by on Mon, 08 Dec 2014 13:56:41 EST:
Using one of the most powerful lasers in the world, researchers have accelerated subatomic particles to the highest energies ever recorded from a compact accelerator. The team used a specialized petawatt laser and a charged-particle gas called plasma to get the particles up to speed. The setup is known as a laser-plasma accelerator, an emerging class of particle accelerators that physicists believe can shrink traditional, miles-long accelerators to machines that can fit on a table.
Ultrafast complex molecular simulations by ‘cutting up molecules’
by on Fri, 05 Dec 2014 17:51:28 EST:
Scientists have developed an ultrafast quantum chemical method, which allows rapid and accurate simulations of complex molecular systems consisting of thousands of molecules.
45-year physics mystery shows a path to quantum transistors
by on Fri, 05 Dec 2014 14:24:32 EST:
An odd, iridescent material that's puzzled physicists for decades turns out to be an exotic state of matter that could open a new path to quantum computers and other next-generation electronics.
New technique offers spray-on solar power
by on Fri, 05 Dec 2014 12:43:49 EST:
Pretty soon, powering your tablet could be as simple as wrapping it in cling wrap. Scientists have just invented a new way to spray solar cells onto flexible surfaces using miniscule light-sensitive materials known as colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) -- a major step toward making spray-on solar cells easy and cheap to manufacture.
New revelations on dark matter and relic neutrinos
by on Thu, 04 Dec 2014 12:13:56 EST:
Satellite have been studying relic radiation (the most ancient light in the Universe). This light has been measured precisely across the entire sky for the first time, in both intensity and polarization, thereby producing the oldest image of the Universe. This primordial light lets us "see" some of the most elusive particles in the Universe: dark matter and relic neutrinos. Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible.
Controlled emission and spatial splitting of electron pairs demonstrated
by on Thu, 04 Dec 2014 07:40:20 EST:
In quantum optics, generating entangled and spatially separated photon pairs (e.g. for quantum cryptography) is already a reality. So far, it has, however, not been possible to demonstrate an analogous generation and spatial separation of entangled electron pairs in solids. Physicists have now taken a decisive step in this direction. They have demonstrated for the first time the on-demand emission of electron pairs from a semiconductor quantum dot and verified their subsequent splitting into two separate conductors.
Laser physicists 'see' how electrons make atomic and molecular transitions
by on Wed, 26 Nov 2014 12:44:13 EST:
By solving a six-dimensional equation that had previously stymied researchers, physicists have pinpointed the characteristics of a laser pulse that yields electron behavior they can predict and essentially control.
Engineers make sound loud enough to bend light on a computer chip: Device could improve wireless communications systems
by on Wed, 26 Nov 2014 12:44:09 EST:
Engineering researchers have developed a chip on which both sound wave and light wave are generated and confined together so that the sound can very efficiently control the light.
The mysterious 'action at a distance' between liquid containers
by on Wed, 26 Nov 2014 10:38:59 EST:
For several years, it has been known that superfluid helium housed in reservoirs located next to each other acts collectively, even when the channels connecting the reservoirs are too narrow and too long to allow for substantial flow. A new theoretical model reveals that the phenomenon of mysterious communication 'at a distance' between fluid reservoirs is much more common than previously thought.
Particles, waves and ants
by on Wed, 26 Nov 2014 09:42:44 EST:
Particles or waves traveling through disordered media are scattered at small impurities. Surprisingly, the density of these impurities does not affect the overall dwell time the particle -- or wave -- spends inside the medium. This remarkable finding applies not only to particles and waves, but also to crawling ants or drunken sailors hitting streetlamps.
Global quantum communications: No longer the stuff of fiction?
by on Wed, 26 Nov 2014 09:42:40 EST:
Neither quantum computers nor quantum cryptography will become prevalent technologies without memory systems able to manipulate quantum information easily and effectively. Scientists have recently made inroads into popularizing quantum information technologies by creating an atomic memory with outstanding parameters and an extremely simple construction.
It's particle-hunting season! Scientists launch Higgs Hunters Project
by on Wed, 26 Nov 2014 09:40:53 EST:
Scientists have launched the Higgs Hunters project, which will allow members of the general public to study images recorded at the Large Hadron Collider and to help search for previously unobserved particles.
Van der Waals force re-measured: Physicists verified nonlinear increase with growing molecular size
by on Wed, 26 Nov 2014 07:51:01 EST:
Van der Waals forces act like a sort of quantum glue on all types of matter. Using a new measuring technique, scientists experimentally determined for the first time all of the key details of how strongly the single molecules bind to a surface. With an atomic force microscope, they demonstrated that the forces do not just increase with molecular size, but that they even grow disproportionately fast.
Cooling with the coldest matter in the world
by on Mon, 24 Nov 2014 11:18:21 EST:
Physicists have developed a new cooling technique for mechanical quantum systems. Using an ultracold atomic gas, the vibrations of a membrane were cooled down to less than 1 degree above absolute zero. This technique may enable novel studies of quantum physics and precision measurement devices.
New terahertz device could strengthen security
by on Fri, 21 Nov 2014 14:12:32 EST:
We are all familiar with the security hassles that accompany air travel. Now a new type of security detection that uses terahertz radiation is looking to prove its promise. Researchers have developed a room temperature, compact, tunable terahertz source that could lead to advances in homeland security and space exploration. Able to detect explosives, chemical agents and dangerous biological substances from safe distances, devices using terahertz waves could make public spaces more secure than ever.
Improved nanomaterials: Understanding surface structure of quantum dots will aid design of new solar devices
by on Thu, 20 Nov 2014 15:39:48 EST:
A potential path to identify imperfections and improve the quality of nanomaterials for use in next-generation solar cells has just emerged.
Quantum mechanical calculations reveal the hidden states of enzyme active sites
by on Thu, 20 Nov 2014 13:34:24 EST:
Enzymes carry out fundamental biological processes such as photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation and respiration, with the help of clusters of metal atoms as 'active' sites. But scientists lack basic information about their function because the states thought to be critical to their chemical abilities cannot be experimentally observed. Now, researchers have reported the first direct observation of the electronic states of iron-sulfur clusters, common to many enzyme active sites.
Novel 2-in-1 biomarker, drug delivery system developed
by on Thu, 20 Nov 2014 11:35:09 EST:
A unique biomarker with two exceptional functions has been developed by researchers. First, it lights up when it detects tumour cells to allow scientists to take a better look. And it can also release anti-cancer drugs at the same time to the specific cells. This new biomarker, which has immense potential for drug development, is made from a nanophosphor particle, ten thousand times smaller than a grain of sand.
Physicists discover new subatomic particles
by on Wed, 19 Nov 2014 16:09:20 EST:
Physicists have discovered two never-before-seen baryonic particles. The finding is expected to have a major impact on the study of quark dynamics.
Physicists suggest new way to detect dark matter
by on Tue, 18 Nov 2014 10:56:26 EST:
For years physicists have been looking for the universe's elusive dark matter, but so far no one has seen any trace of it. Maybe we are looking in the wrong place? Now physicists propose a new technique to detect dark matter.
Hiding in plain sight: Elusive dark matter may be detected with GPS satellites
by on Mon, 17 Nov 2014 15:47:22 EST:
The everyday use of a GPS device might be to find your way around town or even navigate a hiking trail, but for two physicists, the Global Positioning System might be a tool in directly detecting and measuring dark matter, so far an elusive but ubiquitous form of matter responsible for the formation of galaxies.
Spiral laser beam creates quantum whirlpool
by on Mon, 17 Nov 2014 09:33:36 EST:
Physicists have engineered a spiral laser beam and used it to create a whirlpool of hybrid light-matter particles called polaritons, hybrid particles that have properties of both matter and light and could link electronics with photonics.
'Topological insulators' promising for spintronics, quantum computers
by on Thu, 13 Nov 2014 19:51:56 EST:
Researches have uncovered 'smoking-gun' evidence to confirm the workings of an emerging class of materials that could make possible 'spintronic' devices and practical quantum computers far more powerful than today's technologies.
A piece of the quantum puzzle
by on Wed, 12 Nov 2014 14:48:37 EST:
Scientists have been exploring qubits (quantum bits) for quantum simulation. In this work, researchers have demonstrated a quantum version of Gauss's law. The novelty of the experiment is how the curvature was measured.
Shaking the topological cocktail of success: New class of materials
by on Wed, 12 Nov 2014 13:21:01 EST:
Take ultracold potassium atoms, place a honeycomb lattice of laser beams on top of them and shake everything in a circular motion: this recipe enabled researchers to implement an idea for a new class of materials first proposed in 1988 in their laboratory.
All 'quantum weirdness' may be caused by interacting parallel worlds, physicist theorizes
by on Wed, 12 Nov 2014 13:19:27 EST:
A new theory of quantum mechanics was developed by Bill Poirier, a chemical physicist. The theory discusses parallel worlds' existence and the quantum effects observed in nature.
Twisted light waves sent across Vienna
by on Tue, 11 Nov 2014 19:22:33 EST:
A group of researchers from Austria have sent twisted beams of light across the rooftops of Vienna. It is the first time that twisted light has been transmitted over a large distance outdoors, and could enable researchers to take advantage of the significant data-carrying capacity of light in both classical and quantum communications.
Noise in a microwave amplifier is limited by quantum particles of heat
by on Mon, 10 Nov 2014 12:40:07 EST:
Scientists have demonstrated how noise in a microwave amplifier is limited by self-heating at very low temperatures. The findings can be of importance for future discoveries in many areas of science such as quantum computers and radio astronomy. Many significant discoveries in physics and astronomy are dependent upon registering a barely detectable electrical signal in the microwave regime.
On-demand conductivity for graphene nanoribbons
by on Mon, 10 Nov 2014 11:02:51 EST:
Physicists have devised a theoretical model to tune the conductivity of graphene zigzag nanoribbons using ultra-short pulses. Physicists have, for the first time, explored in detail the time evolution of the conductivity, as well as other quantum-level electron transport characteristics, of a graphene device subjected to periodic ultra-short pulses. To date, the majority of graphene studies have considered the dependency of transport properties on the characteristics of the external pulses, such as field strength, period or frequency.
On the Trail of Proteins: Scientists electrochemically detect protein binding on semiconductors
by on Fri, 07 Nov 2014 13:17:24 EST:
Scientists have succeeded in electrochemically detecting protein binding on semiconductor materials for the first time, thanks to a newly developed investigative method based on differences in electrical charge. Now the physicists are working on an optical process to detect and localize protein binding directly under a microscope, for example, a method that could launch new applications in medical research and diagnostics.
Maybe it wasn't the Higgs particle after all
by on Fri, 07 Nov 2014 11:10:27 EST:
Last year CERN announced the finding of a new elementary particle, the Higgs particle. But maybe it wasn't the Higgs particle, maybe it just looks like it. And maybe it is not alone.
The Peres conjecture is false, experts say
by on Wed, 05 Nov 2014 09:34:58 EST:
Since 1999, the conjecture by Asher Peres, who invented quantum teleportation, has piqued the interest of many scientists in the field. According to his hypothesis, the weakest form of quantum entanglement can never result in the strongest manifestation of the phenomenon. Today, scientists have proven this conjecture to be false, thus solving one of the most famous problems in quantum information physics.
Dark matter may be massive: Theorists suggest the standard model may account for the stuff
by on Tue, 04 Nov 2014 11:16:29 EST:
Instead of WIMPS or axions, dark matter may be made of macroscopic objects as small as a few ounces up to the size of a good asteroid, and probably as dense as a neutron star or the nucleus of an atom, researchers suggest.
Physicists narrow search for solution to proton spin puzzle
by on Tue, 04 Nov 2014 11:11:50 EST:
Results from recent experiments reveal new insights about how quarks and gluons, the subatomic building blocks of matter, contribute to proton “spin.”
String field theory could be the foundation of quantum mechanics: Connection could be huge boost to string theory
by on Mon, 03 Nov 2014 14:23:26 EST:
Scientists propose a link between string field theory and quantum mechanics that could open the door to using string field theory as the basis of all physics. Their calculations "could solve the mystery of where quantum mechanics comes from," said a co-author.
Ultracold disappearing act: 'Matter waves' move through one another but never share space
by on Sun, 02 Nov 2014 16:01:09 EST:
How can two clumps of matter pass through each other without sharing space? Physicists have documented a strange disappearing act by colliding Bose Einstein condensates that appear to keep their distance even as they pass through one another.
Step toward quantum computers: Two photons strongly coupled by glass fiber
by on Sun, 02 Nov 2014 16:01:05 EST:
Usually, light waves do not interact with each other. Coupling of photons with other photons is only possible with the help of special materials and very intense light. Scientists have now created the strongest possible coupling of only two photons -- an important achievement for quantum optics.
Universe may face a darker future: Is dark matter being swallowed up by dark energy?
by on Fri, 31 Oct 2014 08:20:21 EDT:
New research offers a novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. Scientists have found hints that dark matter, the cosmic scaffolding on which our Universe is built, is being slowly erased, swallowed up by dark energy.
Lord of the microrings: Breakthrough in microring laser cavities reported
by on Thu, 30 Oct 2014 15:08:58 EDT:
Researchers report a significant breakthrough in laser technology with the development of a unique microring laser cavity that can produce single-mode lasing on demand. This advance holds ramifications for a wide range of optoelectronic applications including metrology and interferometry, data storage and communications, and high-resolution spectroscopy.
Scientists propose existence and interaction of parallel worlds: Many Interacting Worlds theory challenges foundations of quantum science
by on Thu, 30 Oct 2014 10:16:54 EDT:
Academics are challenging the foundations of quantum science with a radical new theory on parallel universes. Scientists now propose that parallel universes really exist, and that they interact. They show that such an interaction could explain everything that is bizarre about quantum mechanics.
Physicists pave the way for quantum interfaces
by on Thu, 30 Oct 2014 10:12:20 EDT:
Researchers have controlled interplay of light and matter at the level of individual photons emitted by rubidium.
Can the wave function of an electron be divided and trapped?
by on Tue, 28 Oct 2014 21:41:29 EDT:
Electrons are elementary particles -- indivisible, unbreakable. But new research suggests the electron's quantum state -- the electron wave function -- can be separated into many parts. That has some strange implications for the theory of quantum mechanics.
Physicists' simple solution for quantum technology challenge
by on Tue, 28 Oct 2014 10:48:08 EDT:
A solution to one of the key challenges in the development of quantum technologies has been proposed by physicists. Scientists show how to make a new type of flexibly-designed microscopic trap for atoms.
New evidence for an exotic, predicted superconducting state
by on Sun, 26 Oct 2014 19:53:26 EDT:
Physicist have produced new evidence for an exotic superconducting state, first predicted a half-century ago, that can arise when a superconductor is exposed to a strong magnetic field.