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ScienceDaily: Quantum Physics News


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URL: http://www.sciencedaily.com/news/matter_energy/quantum_physics/

Description: News on quantum physics. Read current research on everything from quantum mechanics to quantum dots. Was Albert Einstein right?

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ScienceDaily: Quantum Physics News


First glimpse inside a macroscopic quantum state
by on Fri, 27 Mar 2015 09:10:12 EDT:
Scientists report on the detection of particle entanglement in a beam of squeezed light. Researchers were able to observe effects of entanglement monogamy, where particles can be strongly entangled only if they have few entanglement partners.
Using magnetic fields to understand high-temperature superconductivity
by on Thu, 26 Mar 2015 15:23:21 EDT:
Taking our understanding of quantum matter to new levels, scientists are exposing high-temperature superconductors to very high magnetic fields, changing the temperature at which the materials become perfectly conducting and revealing unique properties of these substances.
Theory of the strong interaction verified: Supercomputer calculates mass difference between neutron and proton
by on Thu, 26 Mar 2015 15:16:07 EDT:
The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. The findings are considered a milestone by many physicists and confirm the theory of the strong interaction.
Magnetic quantum crystals
by on Thu, 26 Mar 2015 15:16:03 EDT:
In experiments with ultracold rubidium atoms scientists create magnetic quantum crystals made of gigantic Rydberg atoms.
Thousands of atoms entangled with a single photon
by on Wed, 25 Mar 2015 15:19:03 EDT:
Physicists have developed a new technique that can successfully entangle 3,000 atoms using only a single photon. The results represent the largest number of particles that have ever been mutually entangled experimentally.
Tiny bio-robot is a germ suited-up with graphene quantum dots
by on Tue, 24 Mar 2015 14:07:23 EDT:
Researchers have created an electromechanical device -- a humidity sensor -- on a bacterial spore. Like other first-generation bio-robots, the new nanobot is a far cry from Robocop. It's a robotic germ.
'Tipping point' between quantum and classical worlds identified
by on Tue, 24 Mar 2015 13:22:34 EDT:
If we are ever to fully harness the power of light for use in optical devices, it is necessary to understand photons -- the fundamental unit of light. Achieving such understanding, however, is easier said than done. That's because the physical behavior of photons -- similar to electrons and other sub-atomic particles -- is characterized not by classical physics, but by quantum mechanics. Now, scientists have observed the point at which classical and quantum behavior converge.
Building shape inspires new material discovery
by on Tue, 24 Mar 2015 10:14:49 EDT:
Physicists inspired by the radical shape of a Canberra building have created a new type of material which enables scientists to put a perfect bend in light. The creation of a so-called topological insulator could transform the telecommunications industry's drive to build an improved computer chip using light.
Quantum experiment verifies Einstein's 'spooky action at a distance'
by on Tue, 24 Mar 2015 08:48:08 EDT:
Scientists have for the first time demonstrated Albert Einstein's original conception of 'spooky action at a distance' using a single particle.
Quantum correlation can imply causation
by on Mon, 23 Mar 2015 15:06:45 EDT:
Contrary to the statistician's slogan, in the quantum world, certain kinds of correlations do imply causation. New research shows that in quantum mechanics, certain kinds of observations will let you distinguish whether there is a common cause or a cause-effect relation between two variables. The same is not true in classical physics.
New approach uses 'twisted light' to increase efficiency of quantum cryptography systems
by on Fri, 20 Mar 2015 13:31:10 EDT:
Researchers have developed a way to transfer 2.05 bits per photon by using 'twisted light.' This remarkable achievement is possible because the researchers used the orbital angular momentum of the photons to encode information, rather than the more commonly used polarization of light. The new approach doubles the 1 bit per photon that is possible with current systems that rely on light polarization and could help increase the efficiency of quantum cryptography systems.
Superfast computers a step closer as a silicon chip's quantum capabilities are improved
by on Fri, 20 Mar 2015 09:13:07 EDT:
Research has demonstrated laser control of quantum states in an ordinary silicon wafer and observation of these states via a conventional electrical measurement. 
High temp superconductivity: You can't play checkers with charge ordering
by on Thu, 19 Mar 2015 16:55:52 EDT:
Physicists have observed the shape of a strange phenomenon that interferes with high-temperature superconductivity called charge ordering, discovering that it is stripy, not checkered, and settling a long-standing debate in the field.
Sharper nanoscopy: What happens when a quantum dot looks in a mirror?
by on Thu, 19 Mar 2015 14:34:22 EDT:
The advent of super-resolved microscopy with visible light won this year's chemistry Nobel. Scientists have now discovered how to make nanoscale images even sharper.
Scientists decipher the spectrum of CH5+ for the first time
by on Thu, 19 Mar 2015 14:33:27 EDT:
For the first time ever, scientist have succeeded in understanding the spectrum of the highly fluxional molecule CH5+. This insight was made possible by the extreme cooling of this enigmatic molecule and a highly accurate measurement of its vibrational transitions.
Quantum computing: One step closer with defect-free logic gate
by on Thu, 19 Mar 2015 09:22:20 EDT:
What does hair styling have in common with quantum computing? The braiding pattern has inspired scientists as a potential new approach to quantum calculation. But due to their tight assembly, such braids are much more difficult to destabilize and less error-prone. Yet, local defects can still arise along nanowires. A new study identifies potential sources of computer errors arising from these defects.
Quantum dots 'breathe' in response to stress
by on Thu, 19 Mar 2015 09:19:42 EDT:
Researchers have watched nanoscale semiconductor crystals expand and shrink in response to powerful pulses of laser light. This ultrafast "breathing" provides new insight about how such tiny structures change shape as they start to melt -- information that can help guide researchers in tailoring their use for a range of applications.
Fine-tuning quantum dots from coal
by on Wed, 18 Mar 2015 14:06:56 EDT:
The size of graphene quantum dots made from coal can be finely tuned in a single step for electronic and fluorescent properties, according to scientists.
Superradiant matter: A new paradigm to explore dynamic phase transitions
by on Wed, 18 Mar 2015 10:13:55 EDT:
In a new approach to understand dynamic phase transitions an experimental and theoretical effort was undertaken using a novel type of quantum matter in a so-called superradiant state.
Light as puppeteer: Controlling single, micron-sized particles with light
by on Wed, 18 Mar 2015 07:42:36 EDT:
Researchers have demonstrated a more robust method for controlling single, micron-sized particles with light.
Advancing accelerator science using Mira
by on Tue, 17 Mar 2015 14:24:48 EDT:
Physicists are performing complex accelerator simulations aimed at reducing the risks and costs involved in developing the world's highest intensity particle beams.
Nanospheres cooled with light to explore the limits of quantum physics
by on Tue, 17 Mar 2015 10:41:18 EDT:
Scientists have developed a new technology which could one day create quantum phenomena in objects far larger than any achieved so far. The team successfully suspended glass particles 400 nanometers across in a vacuum using an electric field, then used lasers to cool them to within a few degrees of absolute zero. These are the key prerequisites for making an object behave according to quantum principles.
New remote control for molecular motors
by on Mon, 16 Mar 2015 12:25:14 EDT:
Magnetic molecules can be considered as nanoscale magnets. Remotely controlling the direction in which they rotate may intuitively be difficult to achieve. However, physicists have just demonstrated that it is theoretically possible to do so. They have shown that a change of direction in the circular polarization of an external magnetic field leads to a change in the direction of the mechanical rotation of the molecule.
Frozen highly charged ions for highest precision spectroscopy
by on Thu, 12 Mar 2015 14:29:11 EDT:
Scientists have demonstrated for the first time Coulomb crystallization of highly charged ions (HCIs). The new method opens the field of laser spectroscopy of HCIs providing the basis for novel atomic clocks and high-precision tests of the variability of natural constants.
Shaken, not stirred, is best for cancer imaging
by on Thu, 12 Mar 2015 14:25:20 EDT:
Fluorescent probes currently used for bioimaging (for example, cadmium selenide quantum dots) fluoresce brightly enough to show up on detectors but may be toxic and thus unsuitable for use in the body. Now scientists have found that tiny conjugated polyelectrolyte-nanoparticle probes produced by ultrasonication prove superior to commercial products.
How does order emerge?
by on Thu, 12 Mar 2015 10:04:47 EDT:
Scientists have analyzed how fast order can appear in a quantum-mechanical system. During the freezing of water, the initially unordered molecules start to form an ordered crystal, namely ice. During this phase transition, they rearrange from an unordered into a more ordered state. This setting naturally poses one important question: How long does this phase transition take, i.e. how long does it take for each molecule to find its place in the crystal?
Particle jets reveal the secrets of the most exotic state of matter
by on Wed, 11 Mar 2015 12:46:49 EDT:
Shortly following the Big Bang, the Universe was filled with a chaotic primordial soup of quarks and gluons, particles which are now trapped inside of protons and neutrons. Study of this quark-gluon plasma requires the use of the most advanced theoretical and experimental tools. Physicists have taken one crucial step towards a better understanding of the plasma and its properties.
Theoretical physicists design 'holy grail' of materials science
by on Wed, 11 Mar 2015 08:17:06 EDT:
Graphene is a form of carbon in which the atoms are connected in a honeycomb structure. The possible ‘holy grail’ has this same structure, but is made of nanocrystals of mercury and tellurium. In their paper, theoretical physicists show that this material combines the properties of graphene with the qualities graphene misses. At room temperature, it is a semiconductor instead of a conductor, so that it can be used as a field-effect transistor. And it fulfils the conditions required to realise quantum spintronics, because it may host the quantum spin Hall effect at room temperature.
Researchers snap-shot fastest observations of superconductivity yet
by on Tue, 10 Mar 2015 16:02:13 EDT:
An international team of researchers has used infinitely short light pulses to observe ultrafast changes in the electron-level properties of superconductors, setting a new standard for temporal resolution in the field.
Mid-IR frequency combs enable high resolution spectroscopy for sensitive and accurate gas sensing
by on Tue, 10 Mar 2015 12:32:04 EDT:
Scientists have developed a frequency comb light source in the mid-IR wavelength band. These frequency comb light sources with an extended spectrum can be used for real-time, extremely high resolution spectroscopy, e.g. to measure the presence and concentration of gas molecules in analytes.
Solving the riddle of neutron stars
by on Tue, 10 Mar 2015 07:41:05 EDT:
It has not yet been possible to measure the gravitational waves predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity. They are so weak that they get lost in the noise of the measurements. But thanks to the latest simulations of the merging of binary neutron star systems, the structure of the sought-after signals is now known. As theoretical astrophysicists report, gravitational waves have a characteristic spectrum that is similar to the spectral lines of atoms.
Quantum sensor's advantages survive entanglement breakdown
by on Mon, 09 Mar 2015 13:50:50 EDT:
The extraordinary promise of quantum information processing -- solving problems that classical computers can't, perfectly secure communication -- depends on a phenomenon called "entanglement," in which the physical states of different quantum particles become interrelated. But entanglement is very fragile, and the difficulty of preserving it is a major obstacle to developing practical quantum information systems.
Graphene meets heat waves
by on Fri, 06 Mar 2015 11:20:11 EST:
Researchers have shed new light on the fundamental mechanisms of heat dissipation in graphene and other two-dimensional materials. They have shown that heat can propagate as a wave over very long distances. This is key information for engineering the electronics of tomorrow.
Breakthrough in nonlinear optics research
by on Thu, 05 Mar 2015 11:06:07 EST:
A method to selectively enhance or inhibit optical nonlinearities in a chip-scale device has been developed by scientists. To achieve their result the scientists investigated a specific optical nonlinearity that deals with the interaction between light and sound on chip scale devices.
Einstein put to the test: Satellite mission on dark energy and theory of gravitation
by on Thu, 05 Mar 2015 11:03:46 EST:
Physicists have gained new insights into dark energy and the theory of gravitation by analyzing data from the "Planck" satellite mission of the European Space Agency (ESA). Their results demonstrate that the standard model of cosmology remains an excellent description of the universe. Yet when the Planck data is combined with other astronomical observations, several deviations emerge. Further studies must determine whether these anomalies are due to measurement uncertainties or undiscovered physical correlations, which would also challenge Einstein's theory of gravitation. Thus, the analysis of the Planck data gives major impetus for research during future space missions.
Strength in numbers: First-ever quantum device that detects and corrects its own errors
by on Wed, 04 Mar 2015 15:26:21 EST:
When scientists develop a full quantum computer, the world of computing will undergo a revolution of sophistication, speed and energy efficiency that will make even our beefiest conventional machines seem like Stone Age clunkers by comparison.
New data on the nature of dark matter
by on Tue, 03 Mar 2015 07:53:22 EST:
Recent research contributes to the effort to determine the nature of dark matter, one of the most important mysteries in physics. As indirect evidence provided by its gravitational effects, dark matter amounts to more than 80% of the universe.
Breakthrough in particle control creates special half-vortex rotation
by on Tue, 03 Mar 2015 07:51:43 EST:
A breakthrough in the control of a type of particle known as the polariton has created a highly specialised form of rotation.
Forbidden atomic transitions: Controlling matter 1,000 times more precisely using high-resolution spectroscopy
by on Mon, 02 Mar 2015 12:33:41 EST:
A new twist on an old tool lets scientists use light to study and control matter with 1,000 times better resolution and precision than previously possible. Physicists have demonstrated "ponderomotive spectroscopy," which allows researchers to peer more deeply into the structure of atoms and direct their behavior at a much finer scale. The new technique could have applications in quantum computing.
Important step towards quantum computing: Metals at atomic scale
by on Mon, 02 Mar 2015 12:25:00 EST:
Scientists report that they could observe experimentally the current flow along channels at the crystal surfaces of topological insulators. The channels are less than one nanometer wide and extend along atomic steps of the crystal lattice. The scientists demonstrated also how these steps can be introduced in any arrangement.
First ever photograph of light as a particle and a wave
by on Mon, 02 Mar 2015 10:47:31 EST:
Light behaves both as a particle and as a wave. Since the days of Einstein, scientists have been trying to directly observe both of these aspects of light at the same time. Now, scientists have succeeded in capturing the first-ever snapshot of this dual behavior.
Quantum radar to detect objects which are invisible to conventional systems
by on Fri, 27 Feb 2015 08:46:28 EST:
A prototype quantum radar that has the potential to detect objects which are invisible to conventional systems has now been developed.
Top-precision optical atomic clock starts ticking
by on Thu, 26 Feb 2015 18:35:12 EST:
A state-of-the-art optical atomic clock is now 'ticking away.' As the first of its kind in Poland and one of just a handful of clocks of this caliber in the world, the new clock will keep track of the passage of time with extraordinary precision.
New research predicts when, how materials will act
by on Thu, 26 Feb 2015 12:23:36 EST:
A material might melt or snap in half. And for engineers, knowing when and why that might happen is crucial information. Now, a researcher has laid out an overarching theory that explains why certain materials act the way they do.
Clusters of aluminum metal atoms become superconductive at surprisingly high temperatures
by on Wed, 25 Feb 2015 13:22:59 EST:
Clusters of atoms known as 'superatoms' represent an entirely new family of superconductors -- one that appears to work at temperatures well above standard superconductors.
Physicists offer a solution to the puzzle of the origin of matter in the universe
by on Wed, 25 Feb 2015 13:22:55 EST:
Most of the laws of nature treat particles and antiparticles equally, but stars and planets are made of particles, or matter, and not antiparticles, or antimatter. That asymmetry, which favors matter to a very small degree, has puzzled scientists for many years. Physicists offer a possible solution to the mystery of the origin of matter in the universe.
Bending a highly energetic electron beam with crystal
by on Wed, 25 Feb 2015 13:21:10 EST:
Scientists have demonstrated that a bent silicon crystal can bend the paths of focused, very energetic electron beams much more than magnets used today. The method could be of interest for particle accelerator applications such as next-generation X-ray lasers that will help scientists unravel atomic structures and motions in unprecedented detail.
Spin laser: Rapid data transfer thanks to quantum physics
by on Wed, 25 Feb 2015 08:25:32 EST:
Engineers have developed a new concept for accelerating data transfer in server farms. To this end, the team has applied a quantum-mechanical variable, i.e. the spin. Researchers are optimizing the so-called spin lasers for data transfer.
Ultra-thin nanowires can trap electron 'twisters' that disrupt superconductors
by on Tue, 24 Feb 2015 11:34:26 EST:
Superconductor materials are prized for their ability to carry an electric current without resistance, a valuable trait crippled or lost when electrons swirl into tiny tornado-like formations called vortices. To keep supercurrents flowing at top speed, scientists have figured out how to constrain troublesome vortices by trapping them within extremely short, ultra-thin nanowires.
Optical nanoantennas set the stage for a NEMS lab-on-a-chip revolution
by on Tue, 24 Feb 2015 11:29:27 EST:
Newly developed tiny antennas, likened to spotlights on the nanoscale, offer the potential to measure food safety, identify pollutants in the air and even quickly diagnose and treat cancer, according to the scientists who created them.
Simulating superconducting materials with ultracold atoms
by on Mon, 23 Feb 2015 12:25:52 EST:
Physicists have used ultracold lithium atoms to create a state of matter that may help solve some of the mysteries of high-temperature superconductivity.
Quantum many-body systems on the way back to equilibrium
by on Mon, 23 Feb 2015 08:42:40 EST:
Advances in experimental and theoretical physics enable a deeper understanding of the dynamics and properties of quantum many-body systems.
Higgs mode in superconducting materials: Tabletop technique for examining physics' most celebrated missing link
by on Thu, 19 Feb 2015 10:17:13 EST:
The Nobel Prize-winning discovery of the Higgs boson -- the 'God particle' believed responsible for all the mass in the universe -- took place in 2012 at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. The first hint of Higgs was inspired by the study of superconductors -- a special class of metals that, when cooled to very low temperatures, allow electrons to move without resistance. Now, a research team has reported the first-ever observations of the Higgs mode in superconducting materials.
Searching for signs of a force from the 'dark side' in particle collisions
by on Thu, 19 Feb 2015 08:49:08 EST:
Scientists searching for signs of elusive “dark photons” as an explanation for an anomaly in a groundbreaking physics experiment have nearly ruled out their role.
Getting a grip on exotic atomic nuclei
by on Wed, 18 Feb 2015 10:16:26 EST:
A new model describing atomic nuclei more accurately predicts the properties of various exotic isotopes that are created in supernova explosions or inside nuclear reactors.
Building a more versatile frequency comb: Newly developed frequency combs can operate at higher power
by on Tue, 17 Feb 2015 13:12:38 EST:
Researchers have developed a room temperature frequency comb with increased power based on quantum cascade lasers. Since the discovery of optical frequency combs in the 1990s, many applications in metrology, spectroscopy, and frequency synthesis have emerged. Similar to the way a grandfather clock's pendulum ticks off the seconds before signaling the gears to turn its hands, frequency combs count oscillations and convert them into useful electronic signals.
Novel solid-state nanomaterial platform enables terahertz photonics
by on Tue, 17 Feb 2015 11:40:07 EST:
Compact, sensitive and fast nanodetectors are considered to be somewhat of a "Holy Grail" sought by many researchers around the world. And now a team of scientists in Italy and France has been inspired by nanomaterials and has created a novel solid-state technology platform that opens the door to the use of terahertz (THz) photonics in a wide range of applications.
Controlling car pollution at the quantum level
by on Mon, 16 Feb 2015 09:20:49 EST:
Researchers are working towards a new generation of automotive catalytic converters.
What’s new for LHC Run II
by on Sat, 14 Feb 2015 09:23:56 EST:
The most powerful particle accelerator on Earth soon will reawaken for its second run. Scientists explain how the upgraded capabilities of the Large Hadron Collider and its experiments will give access to a previously inaccessible realm of physics.
Exotic states materialize with supercomputers
by on Thu, 12 Feb 2015 15:46:37 EST:
Supercomputers used to find new class of materials that exhibit exotic matter state known as the quantum spin Hall effect. The researchers propose a new type of transistor made from these materials.